1. Dahlia Bazzaz, “Dispatches from Parents: Northshore School District’sFirst Online-OnlyDay to Prevent Coronavirus Spread,” Seattle Times,March 9, 2020,


1. Vanessa Lu and Kristin Rushowy, “Rainbow Loom Bracelet Maker HotToy Trend,” Toronto Star, October 4, 2013.

2. Ashley Rivera, “How to Make a Rainbow Loom Starburst Bracelet,”YouTube video, August 1, 2013,

3. Cheong Choon Ng, “Experience: I Invented the Loom Band,” Guardian,September 26, 2014,

4. Henry Jenkins, Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: MediaEducation for the Twenty-FirstCentury(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009).5. Mizuko Ito, Crystle Martin, Rachel Cody Pfister, Matthew H. Rafalow, Katie Salen, and Amanda Wortman, Affinity Online: How Connection andShared Interest Fuel Learning (New York: New York University Press, 2018).6. Clayton M. Christensen, Michael B. Horn, and Curtis W. Johnson, DisruptingClass: How Disruptive Innovation WillChange the Way the World Learns(New York: McGraw-Hill,2008), 101.